An elevator can be found in almost any public building with more than one or two floors, including offices, shopping malls, and even some private residences. The parts of a lift you’ll need and where they can be bought are important considerations for building one in your own home.
This is the list of important component of an elevator, that are available from lift part suppliers and are needed for the effective and safe lift working.
Cabin or car
This is the lift’s primary component for transporting people and goods in a secure environment.
the car is supported and towed by it, with the drive sheave acting as a counterweight. Usually number of lays depends on load & speed.
A traction machine is used on all traction elevator equipment types. A motor, drive sheave, brake, and machine bed plate comprise a standard traction machine. The traction machine motor turns the drive sheave shaft to turn the drive sheave. The hoist ropes cross the drive sheave as the sheave turns, allowing the car to be lowered into the hoistway.
An Elevator controller is a system to control the elevators, either manual or automatic. The controller usually tune down the voltage between 12V to 24V to the controlling system, only the motor needs 3-phase power supply. The low voltage power supply is for the controlling component and the fixtures to control the elevator
The functioning and driving of VVVF drives is required for everything that works with electricity.
The counter weight
Elevators, as opposed to simple hoists, actually operate in a slightly different manner in practice. The elevator car is balanced by a heavy counterweight that weighs roughly the same amount as the car when it’s loaded 40 percent -50 percent (in other words, the weight of the car itself plus 40–50 percent of the total weight it can carry). When the elevator goes up, the counterweight goes down—and vice-versa, which helps us in four ways:
- In the same way that sitting on a see-saw makes it much easier to lift someone’s weight than lifting them in your arms, the counterweight makes it easier for the motor to raise and lower the car. Thanks to the counterweight, the motor needs to use much less force to move the car either up or down. Assuming the car and its contents weigh more than the counterweight, all the motor has to lift is the difference in weight between the two and supply a bit of extra force to overcome friction in the pulleys and so on.
- The cables aren’t put under as much stress, which increases the elevator’s overall safety.
- The counterweight reduces the amount of energy the motor needs to use. This is intuitively obvious to anyone who’s ever sat on a see-saw: assuming the see-saw is properly balanced, you can bob up and down any number of times without ever really getting tired—quite different from lifting someone in your arms, which tires you very quickly. This point also follows from the first one: if the motor is using less force to move the car the same distance, it’s doing less work against the force of gravity.
- The elevator uses less braking because of the counterweight. If there were no counterweight, an elevator with a lot of people in it would be difficult to raise, but on the way down, it would crash to the ground unless there was a strong brake to slow it down. The elevator car can be more precisely controlled thanks to the counterweight.
The space enclosed by fireproof walls and elevator doors for the travel of one or more elevators, dumbwaiters or material lifts. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the overhead machinery space floor or grating, or at the underside of the roof where the hoistway does not penetrate the roof.
A set of rails
Steel T-shaped or formed sections with guiding surfaces installed vertically in a hoistway to guide and direct the course of travel of an elevator car and elevator counterweights.
The buffer is an elevator safety device located at the bottom of the cab. Buffers can stop a descending car by accumulating or dissipating the kinetic energy of the car.
Regulators of speed
Most elevators have an entirely separate speed-regulating system called a governor, which is a flywheel with mechanical arms built inside it. When the lift moves too quickly, the arms fly out of the flywheel, pushing a lever mechanism and tripping one or more braking systems. To begin with, they may turn off the lift motor’s power supply. A second mechanism will apply brakes if the first one fails and the lift continues to accelerate. A number of governors use a combination of mechanical and electronic components, while others are entirely mechanical.
The anti-lock brake
When riding an elevator, one of the most common fears is that the cable holding the device together will suddenly snap. Nothing to be concerned about, I assure you. If the cable snaps, a variety of safety systems prevent an elevator car from crashing to the floor.
Both the vertical guide rails and the metal teeth that ran the length of them supported the weight of each car. At the top of each car, there was a spring-loaded mechanism with hooks attached. If the cable broke, the hooks sprung outward and jammed into the metal teeth in the guide rails, locking the car safely in position.
As normal doors, elevator doors are also meant for entry and exit. Elevator door is of two types: Manual doors and Automatic doors.
- People who want to use the lift can help open the manual door by assisting the person opening the door.
- Automatic doors are the type of doors which are automatically opened as it is powered by a door operator and usually have a full height photo-electric curtain to sense the entry/exit of persons.